Der Prophet – Das rechtgeleitete Vorbild

Der Prophet – Das rechtgeleitete Vorbild

 

Was könnte man über den ehrwürdigen Propheten schreiben, was noch nicht geschrieben worden ist? Und was ließe sich abschreiben, ohne dass jedermann sogleich wüsste, dass es ein Plagiat ist? Selbst die deutschen Bücherregale sind voll mit Biographien und Literaturen über die Geschichte des Islams, in denen die Gestalt unseres Propheten mehr oder weniger ausführlich diskutiert wird. Wenn man jedoch die Hadith Bücher oder die Einleitungen der Shari´a Arbeiten mit den zuvor angesprochenen Literaturen vergleicht, dann fällt etwas Merkwürdiges auf. Während nämlich die muslimischen Autoren auf das „schöne Vorbild“ in der Gestalt Muhammeds eingehen, taucht bei den europäischen Wissenschaftlern höchstens in einer Nebenbemerkung der Hinweis auf, dass die Persönlichkeit Muhammeds Bedeutung gehabt habe.

 

So kennt jeder Muslim die aya 21 der sura al-ahzab: „Wahrlich, im Gesandten Gottes habt ihr ein gutes Beispiel für jeden, der dem Letzten Tag entgegensieht und unaufhörlich Gottes gedenkt.“ Manche Übersetzer übertragen die in dieser Diskussion entscheidenden Wörter „gutes Beispiel“ mit „schönes Beispiel“. Hier geht es nicht um die christliche Forderung, dass der Gläubige „sein Kreuz auf sich nehmen solle, um Christus nachzufolgen“, sondern darum sein Leben rechtgeleitet zu führen. Es geht also nicht um Theologie, vielmehr um das Aufnehmen Seiner Rechtleitung, d.h. um Orthopraxie. Dies ist zwar kein islamischer Begriff, aber er trifft dennoch den Sachverhalt. Denn Gott, der Schöpfer, versprach Adam, Seinem Geschöpf, Rechtleitung und sagte, dass wer ihr folgen würde, der würde nicht traurig sein (2:38).

 

Da Rechtleitung kein christlich theologischer Begriff ist, der auch nicht mit dem Begriff des ´Werkes` gleich gesetzt werden sollte, verwendet ihn auch kein europäischer Wissenschaftler bzw. Biograph. Diese Haltung beraubt dem Propheten eine entscheidende Funktion, die wie er selber sagte, der Verbesserung des Charakters gilt.

 

Muhammed hat den Muslimen ein rechtgeleitetes Leben vorgelebt. Sein Gott zugewandtes Alltagsleben war und ist daher für Muslime eine Orientierung für ihren eigenen Alltag. So betrachten malikitische Gelehrte selbst die normative Praxis seiner Zeitgenossen in Mekka und Medina, amal ahl al-Madina, als vorbildhaft und daher als bindend.

 

Natürlich ist das Verhalten im Hedschas des siebenten Jahrhundertes nur bedingt eins zu eins auf die deutsche Gegenwart zu übertragen, was sich an der Reinigung zeigen lässt. Sie ist für das Gebet und bestimmte Situationen vorgeschrieben. Aber niemand nimmt wie einst in Mekka oder Medina drei Kübel Wasser zur Ganzreinigung; dennoch gilt das Gebot Muhammeds, sparsam mit dem Wasser umzugehen, auch bei uns. Nicht zu vergessen die Verpflichtung zu mitmenschlichen Höflichkeit, die sich heute in gesellschaftliche Nischen zurückgezogen hat.

 

Dennoch gilt das schöne Vorbild auch in der Gegenwart in dem, was man früher Sittlichkeit und Anstand nannte. Beide Wörter gehören heute nicht mehr zur Umgangssprache, muslimische Eltern betonen jedoch das mit ihnen Gemeinte. Sie legen wert darauf, dass beides im Religionsunterricht behandelt wird und für Schüler ebenso gilt wie für ihre Lehrer.

 

Gerade im Kontext der Schule kann das schöne Vorbild des Propheten zu einer sittlichen Herausforderung werden, wenn der Unterricht zu verdeutlichen vermag, dass Muhammeds Verhalten für den Gläubigen eine lebenslange Aufgabe sein kann, wenn der Heranwachsende sie anzunehmen lernt. Der Gläubige kann daher am Beispiel des Mannes Muhammed reifen.

Und so bleibt der Prophet ein für Muslime gerade deswegen ein schönes Vorbild, weil dieses Vorbild ein Leben lang Vorbild sein kann.

 

Wolf D. Ahmed Aries

w.d.a.aries@online.de

Publiziert in der Ayasofya 47, 2014

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