Die verfassungsrechtlich geschützte Religions- und Glaubensfreiheit (Artikel 4 GG)

Die verfassungsrechtlich geschützte Religions- und Glaubensfreiheit (Artikel 4 GG)

 

In den ersten 19 Artikeln des Grundgesetzes sind die Grundrechte geregelt. Da der Staat gegenüber den Bürgern ein Gewaltmonopol besitzt und Träger der legitimen Gewalt ist, wird der Bürger durch die Grundrechte besonders geschützt. Historisch gesehen werden sie daher als Abwehrrechte oder Freiheitsrechte der Bürger gegenüber dem Staat bezeichnet, sog. status negativus. D.h. also, dass Grundrechte ein Schutz der Bürger gegenüber der staatlichen Gewalt darstellen. Generell betrachtet unterscheidet man die Grundrechte nach ihrem Wesen. Sie werden klassifiziert in Abwehrrechte, Leistungsrechte, Gleichheitsrechte und Mitwirkungsrechte, wobei die Abwehr die bedeutsamste und wichtigste Funktion besitzt. Bei den Grundrechten unterscheidet man des Weiteren zwischen Deutschenrechte, die nur den Personen zustehen, die nach Artikel 116 GG die deutsche Staatsbürgerschaft besitzen und Jedermannsrechten, die allen Bürgern unabhängig von ihrer Staatsangehörigkeit zustehen können.

Zu den im Grundgesetz verankerten wichtigsten Grundrechten gehört die Religions- und Weltanschauungsfreiheit (Glaubensfreiheit), die im Grundgesetz in Artikel 4 GG geregelt ist. Artikel 4 GG ist ein Abwehrgrundrecht. Mit Abwehrgrundrecht ist gemeint, dass die Freiheit des Einzelnen vor Eingriffen der öffentlichen Gewalt gesichert wird. Die Religionsfreiheit ist ein Grundrecht, welches im Gegensatz zu anderen Grundrechten einen besonderen verfassungsrechtlichen Schutz genießt.

Bei der Religions- und Glaubensfreiheit wird in erster Linie zwischen der individuellen und der kollektiven Glaubensfreiheit zum einen, und zwischen der positiven und negativen Glaubensfreiheit zum anderen unterschieden.

Mit der individuellen Glaubensfreiheit ist gemeint, dass das Grundrecht der Glaubensfreiheit allen natürlichen Personen zusteht, wobei das Grundrecht der Kinder durch das Erziehungsrecht der Eltern nach Artikel 6 II GG eingeschränkt werden kann. Mit der kollektiven Glaubensfreiheit ist gemeint, dass das Grundrecht der Glaubensfreiheit nicht nur Individuen zusteht, sondern darüber hinaus auch allen religiösen und weltanschaulichen Gemeinschaften und Vereinigungen zugute kommt. Durch die kollektive Glaubensfreiheit sind die Tätigkeiten der religiösen oder weltanschaulichen Vereinigungen geschützt. Voraussetzung hierfür ist, dass die Verkündung des Glaubens der Mitglieder und die Pflege und Förderung der religiösen Bekenntnis im Vordergrund steht. Ein Eingriff in den Schutzbereich der kollektiven Glaubensfreiheit liegt vor, wenn der Staat die Tätigkeiten der Religionsgemeinschaften regelt oder in erheblicher Weise behindert. Die kollektive Glaubensfreiheit kann z.B. durch ein Verbot oder eine Warnung einer Religions- bzw. Weltanschauungsgemeinschaft beeinträchtigt werden.

Das Grundrecht der Religionsfreiheit geht grundsätzlich und zunächst von der positiven Glaubensfreiheit aus. Glaubensfreiheit bedeutet hierbei die innere Freiheit (sog. forum internum), eine religiöse oder areligiöse Überzeugung zu bilden und die äußere Freiheit (sog. forum externum), diese Überzeugung und Entscheidung zu bekennen und öffentlich zu verbreiten. Geschützt ist somit nicht nur der Glaube bzw. das Glauben an sich, sondern auch die Glaubensausübung. Negative Glaubensfreiheit bedeutet hingegen die Freiheit, sich nicht zu einem Glauben zu bekennen und eine religiöse oder weltanschauliche Überzeugung abzulehnen, sofern dies auf einer Gewissensentscheidung beruht. Die negative Glaubensfreiheit schützt darüber hinaus auch das Verschweigen und Nichtkundgeben der eigenen Überzeugung.

Jedes Grundrecht ist verfassungsrechtlich geschützt. Der Schutz ist und kann allerdings nicht uneingeschränkt gewährleistet werden. Das bedeutet, dass das Grundrecht seitens des Staates in jeglicher Art und Weise geregelt, begrenzt und beschränkt werden. Dann spricht man von einem Eingriff in den Schutzbereich des entsprechenden Grundrechtes. Zu den möglichen Eingriffen in die Religionsfreiheit gehören z.B. die Pflicht zur Teilnahme am Sportunterricht unter dem Verstoß gegen islamische Bekleidungsvorschriften, die Einschränkung des Schächtens von Tieren unter der Berücksichtigung des Tierschutzgesetzes, die Weigerung der Schulbehörde, eine muslimische Lehrerin aufgrund ihres Kopftuches in den Schuldienst einzustellen unter Berücksichtigung der landesrechtlich geregelten Schulgesetze, sowie die fristlose Kündigung wegen Wahrnehmung eines hohen islamischen Feiertages.

Um einen staatlichen Eingriff in ein Grundrecht vornehmen zu dürfen, bedarf es für die staatliche Gewalt immer einer verfassungsrechtlichen Rechtfertigung, einer sogenannten Grundrechtsschranke. D.h. dass der vorgenommene Eingriff einer Rechtsgrundlage, eines Gesetzes  bedarf.  Ohne eine Rechtsgrundlage ist ein Eingriff nicht gerechtfertigt und somit verfassungswidrig. So muss stets überprüft werden, ob ein einschränkendes Gesetz das Grundrecht auch wirklich einschränken darf.

Nach dem Wortlaut des Artikel 4 GG ist die Glaubensfreiheit zwar vorbehaltlos gewährleistet. Dies darf aber nicht dazu führen, dass andere Verfassungsgüter oder Grundrechte anderer unangemessen beschränkt werden. Bei kollidierenden Grundrechten bzw. Verfassungsgütern muss in konkreten Fällen eine Interessensabwägung (praktische Konkordanz) vorgenommen werden, um zu einem gerechten Ergebnis zu kommen.

Selma Öztürk

oeztuerk.s@gmx.de

Publiziert in: Ayasofya, Nr.30, 2010

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