Die Erziehungsmethoden des Propheten

Die Erziehungsmethoden des Propheten

Der Prophet Muhammad gilt als das lebendige Beispiel eines idealen Muslims.

Seine Lebensweise, sein Verhalten, seine Eigenschaften, seine Taten und Aussprüche, das heißt seine Sunna, besitzt für Muslime verbindlichen Vorbildcharakter und bildet neben dem Koran die zweite grundlegende Quelle im Islam, die den Koran erläutert und/oder ergänzt. Daher wird der Prophet auch als ‚lebendiger Koran‘ bezeichnet. Denn bevor der Prophet etwas anordnete (befahl oder verbot), praktizierte er es erst selbst. Der Prophet nutzte günstige Gelegenheiten, um seine Lehre Kontextbezogen zu vermitteln. Es gab aber auch Situationen, wo er etwas ohne erkennbaren Anlass erzählte.

a) Laut einer Überlieferung von Gundub ibn Abdullah lehrte der Prophet seinen Gefährten erst die Glaubensinhalte (al-Iman) und dann erst den Koran. Durch das Lernen der koranischen Botschaft wiederum, sei ihre innere Überzeugung gestärkt worden. (Überliefert bei ibn Magah)

b) Er achtete auf den „goldenen Mittelweg“ und riet auch seinen Gefährten, in ihren Handlungen nicht zu übertreiben: „Haltet in euren Handlungen das Mittelmaß ein und übertreibt nicht, denn niemand wird durch seine Taten errettet werden“. Sie (die Gefährten) sagten: „Auch du nicht, oh Gesandter Gottes?!“ Er erwiderte: „Auch ich nicht. Es sei denn, durch die Barmherzigkeit und Güte Gottes“. (Überliefert bei al-Buhari, Muslim, ibn Magah, ad-Darimi und Ahmad b. Hanbal)

c) Er riet dazu, zwischen zwei erlaubten Möglichkeiten, den leichteren Weg zu wählen (überliefert von seiner Frau Aischa bei al-Buhari) und riet dazu, es den Menschen zu erleichtern und nicht zu erschweren (überliefert bei al-Buhari und Muslim).

d) Der Prophet gab nicht nur allgemeine oder allgemeingültige, sondern auch auf das Individuum bezogene Ratschläge. Als z. B. jemand zu ihm kommt und ihn fragt, ob er ihm die Erlaubnis gibt, in die Schlacht zu ziehen, fragt ihn der Prophet, ob seine Eltern noch am Leben sind. Als dieser das bejaht, sagt der Prophet zu ihm: „Dann kehre zu ihnen zurück und kümmere dich um sie.“ (Überliefert bei al-Buhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa´i, und at-Tirmiyi).

e) Eine seiner wichtigsten Methoden war das Stellen von Fragen, um die Zuhörer zum Nachdenken anzuregen. Beispiel: „Sagt mir, fließe ein Fluss vor der Tür einem von euch und er sich darin fünfmal am Tag wäscht, würde dann noch Schmutz an ihm bleiben. Die Gefährten sagten: Es bleibe kein Schmutz an ihm. Er sagte: So ist es auch mit den fünf Gebeten. Allah löscht mit ihnen die Sünden.“ (Überliefert bei Buhari und Muslim)

f) Er arbeitete auch mit Handzeichen und Mimik. Sahl ibn Saad berichtet vom Propheten: „Ich und derjenige, der für eine Waise sorgt, werden zusammen im Paradies so sein.“ Und der Prophet zeigte dies demonstrativ mit dem Zeigefinger und dem Mittelfinger, indem er sie voneinander geringfügig spreizte. (Überliefert bei al-Buhari)

g) Er benutze gelegentlich auch Gegenstände. Ali ibn Abi Talib erzählt, dass der Prophet in seine linke Hand Seide und in seine rechte Hand Gold nahm, seine Hände hob und sagte: „Diese beiden sind für die Männer meiner Umma verboten und für die Frauen meiner Umma erlaubt.“ (Überliefert bei Abu Dawud).

h) Das ein Prophet Fragen beantwortet, scheint nichts Ungewöhnliches zu sein. Dennoch warnte der Prophet davor, zu viele Fragen zu stellen, in dem Sinne, dass seine Gefährten seinen Anweisungen folgen sollen, ohne mit einem ständigen „aber“ zu kommen: „Wenn ich mich von euch (nach Beantwortung eurer Fragen) abwende, dann hört auf weitere Fragen zu stellen. Denn auch die Völker vor euch sind aufgrund ihrer vielen Fragen an die Propheten mit ihnen in Meinungsverschiedenheiten geraten und sind dafür vernichtet worden. Wenn ich euch vor etwas warne, dann haltet euch fern davon und wenn ich euch etwas befehle, dann bemüht euch nach Kräften, es zu erfüllen.“ (Überliefert bei Muslim und al-Buhari)

i) Es existieren auch Überlieferungen, wo der Prophet eine Frage mit einer Gegenfrage beantwortete oder der Frage eine andere Richtung gab. Anas ibn Malik überliefert, das ein Mann den Propheten danach fragte, wann der Tag des Weltuntergangs käme und der Prophet fragte ihn: „Was hast du für ihn vorbereitet?“

j) Auch ist überliefert, dass auf eine konkrete Frage eine zusätzliche Information geliefert wird. Jemand fragt: „O Gesandter Gottes. Wir machen eine Seefahrt und nehmen etwas Trinkwasser mit. Sollten wir dieses Wasser für die rituelle Waschung verwenden, hätten wir weniger Trinkwasser. Können wir uns auch mir Meerwasser reinigen?“ Daraufhin antwortet der Prophet: „Das Meerwasser ist rein und seine Bewohner zum Verzehr erlaubt.“ (Überliefert bei al-Buhari)

k) Zur besonderen Rhetorik des Propheten gehörte wiederum das dreimalige Wiederholen wichtiger Hinweise. Diese Methode wird bis heute nicht selten von Imamen während der Freitagspredigten angewendet.

l) In Bezug auf frauenspezifische Fragen, reservierte der Prophet den Frauen Sondersitzungen.

Ali Özgür Özdil

info@iwb-hamburg.de

Publiziert in der Ayasofya 42, 2013

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